Abstract: Principled design, development, and use of noncognitive assessments that considers the need of culturally and linguistically diverse examinees are needed to support valid score-based inferences for all examinees. The four presentations illustrate novel approaches to conceptualize and develop fair assessments spanning across all test development activities (e.g., from construct conceptualization to score analysis and interpretation). In contrast to typically employed group-based methods based on differential item functioning to establish fairness, the presented approaches examine more deeply the impact of cultural and linguistic diversity on assessment conceptualization, use, and interpretation. The presenters discuss that in an era of increased population diversification, one size does not fit all; instead more carefully crafted approaches may help establish fairness while preserving equal access to cognitive resources for all populations. These presentations seek to augment summative scores derived from assessments with contextual data from examinees to enhance test score interpretation to inform policy and practice meaningfully. They support foundational validity and fairness concepts outlined in the AERA, APA, and NCME (2014) Standards, which place notions of universal design and accessibility to all examinees at the center of test design and development activities in support of valid score-based interpretation.

Keywords: diversity, examinees, noncognitive assessments, scores