In this introductory chapter we provide the context for this edited volume, describe the recent research interests around developing collaborative assessments around the world, and synthesize the major research results from the literature from different fields. The purpose of this edited volume was to bring together researchers from diverse disciplines—educational psychology, organizational psychology, learning sciences, assessment design, communications, human-computer interaction, computer science, engineering and applied science, psychometrics—who shared a research interest in examining learners and workers engaged in collaborative activity. This chapter concludes with an emphasis on how each chapter contributes to the research agenda around the measurement research questions, from how to define the constructs to how to model the data from collaborative interactions.